PEIN Country Profile and Virtual Environment Library

papua_new_guineaPapua New Guinea

Capital City: pngmap
Port Moresby
Melanesia - Pacific (Oceania)
Tok Pisin, English

Department of Foreign Affairs & Trade
Department of Environment & Conservation


*Excerpt from 'The priority environmental concerns of Papua New Guinea' [SPREP]

The Environment of Papua New Guinea: General Overview

Papua New Guinea has a population of 5.1 million (PNG National Census 2000), and 80 % of this
population (approximately 4 million people) live a traditional rural subsistence lifestyle that is supported by the biological richness and diversity of the forests, inland waters and coastal seas.
In recent years the sustainable capacity of these ecosystems to continue to support the country’s rural population has come under threat as the country’s rapidly growing population, which has averaged an annual growth rate of 3.5 % over the last 10 years (Saulei et al. 2002), imposes greater demands on these natural resources.

These demands stem from the underlying expectation of all Papua New Guineans that development will bring an improved quality of life with improved welfare services (health and education) and increasing opportunities for personal income generation and the economic benefits these would bring. At the core of these demands is the exploitation of natural resources for revenue generation, both by government and by the local people, particularly in rural areas that lack employment opportunities. In the absence of well-developed commercial and employment sectors, government has to rely on taxes and royalties from the exploitation of its natural resources as a principal source of revenue.

Much of the mainland and the central areas of the larger islands is extremely rugged and inaccessible. With few roads and navigable rivers, many of these areas remain sparsely populated and isolated from government services and development opportunities. Like its larger neighbour to the south, much of the population is concentrated in the coastal regions, although dense populations are located in parts of the highlands around the central plateau, and along some of the major (navigable) rivers in both the highlands and lowland areas. Thus, although the country has a land area of a little over 460,000 square kilometres, large parts of this remain sparsely populated and inaccessible to development. Those areas of land that are accessible and suitable for development show a rapidly growing population, which is pushing the limits of natural resource sustainability in these areas.

Papua New Guinea has a remarkable range of natural environments, ranging from alpine ranges and mountain tops rising to 4,400 metres above sea-level, through montane forests on volcanic or karst pavements, to hot and humid lowland rainforests, savannahs and swamps that may extend for hundreds of kilometres along the wide coastal plains. The range of marine environments include some of the world’s most diverse coral reefs and mangrove forests, as well as a wide variety of productive deltaic and coastal wetlands that harbour some of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet.

Excerpt from 'Papua New Guinea Country Environmental Analysis' [ADB]


Major environmental issues include:

inappropriate land use practices due to intensified farming systems that accelerate land degradation (eg. soil erosion, siltation, and loss of soil fertility)'

unsustainable logging practices that result in adverse environmental impacts (eg. soil erosion, hydrology and water quality impacts, and loss of habitat and biodiversity

destructive fishing practices and coastal pollution due to run-off from land-based activities and oil spills that cause impacts on coastal and marine resources

environmental impacts pf large-scale mining operations (eg. discharge of heavy metals, cyanide, and acids into rivers) that cause adverse impacts on forests and water quality

increase of extreme weather events due to climate change (eg. El Nino, extreme droughts / floods) that increase vulnerability to impacts of natural disasters.

Barriers to effective environmental management

institutional weaknesses in environmental management at national and local level, and policy and legal framework that needs to be further strengthened

traditional land tenure system that constrains integrated land-use management and planning

need for greater environmental awareness generally, and appreciation of environmental values as the basis for sustainable economic growth

increasing population pressure

data gaps that constrain effective decision-making and planning

governance issues that lead to overexploitation of resources

Priority areas for action to promote more effective environmental mainstreaming, improve environmental conditions, and improve the quality of life of the citizens of Papua New Guinea

alleviate poverty, especially in rural communities

improve food security

strengthen the institutions responsible for environmental planning and management

take steps to reverse current trends of environmental degradation, habitat loss, and overexploitation of resources

* Excerpts from 'Millenium Development Goals: Progress Report for Papua New Guinea 2004'

Status and trends

PNG is very rich in natural resources but degradation occurs at a rapid pace. According to the most recent estimates, a very significant part of the total land area is, in spite of large-scale deforestation, still covered with natural forest. The country also has vast swampy plains, wide rivers; high mountain ranges and so on, which all present their unique challenges. PNG’s
geographical location makes it very vulnerable to natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, tidal waves, floods caused by monsoon rain, prolonged dry spells, and so forth.

Since customary landowners hold an estimated 97 % of the total land area, a large proportion of the population has access to the resources that meet their basic needs. Most Papua New Guineans are directly dependent on these resources provided by their physical environment. It provides them with food and shelter and, for the rural population; the utilization of their natural resources is often the only way to earn some cash income. However, the reverse side of the
coin is the continuing degradation of the environment by total or partial removal of natural forest, which is considered by many as a very serious threat. It is, however, believed that the deforestation rate is now lower than in the peak logging years of the mid-1990s.
Nevertheless, present estimates of the annual loss of forest areas still range from 120,000 to 200,000 hectares.

In the foreseeable future, the main threat of deforestation may well come from clearing for
agricultural use. Due to the high population growth rate and the very large proportion of the population dependent for their livelihood on subsistence farming, it may be expected that forest clearing to maintain traditional agricultural systems will increase significantly in the near future. Furthermore, forest will continue to be cleared for commercial farming, infrastructure and urban development etc. This will almost certainly mean that land clearing will be extended to areas that are more vulnerable to erosion of the topsoil and the rapid depletion of soil nutrients.

It may also be expected that soil degradation will increasingly threaten the livelihood of rural people. A very significant part of the total land area in PNG is already subjected to strong or severe erosion. An equally large proportion is permanently inundated or regularly flooded. A concentrated effort for soil conservation strategies leading to long-term environmental sustainability would be well directed to the most affected areas.

In PNG, the total renewable water resources available per person (170,258 m3 in 1999) are very high compared to most countries in the world. The sources for drinking water are very different for rural and urban areas. In rural areas only about 9 per cent of the households have access to piped water. About 70 per cent of rural households use raw and untreated drinking water from a spring, river, stream, pond, lake or dam. On the other hand, more than 70 per cent of
the urban households have access to piped water. With regards sanitation, about 76 per cent of the rural households still have a traditional pit toilet. Only 2.5 per cent have their own or a shared flush toilet and 16 per cent have no toilet facility at all. On the other hand, 58 per cent of the urban households have their own or a shared flush toilet. A matter of major concern is that a very high 32 per cent of the urban households use a traditional pit toilet. Virtually all these households are found in the squatter settlements within the urban areas.

Finally, PNG is signatory to a very large number of multilateral environmental agreements (MEA) but, because of a very large number of factors, amongst others very limited resources; implementation proves to be extremely difficult.

Monitoring of progress

Environment related data collection in PNG is extremely uncoordinated and sporadic.
Furthermore, the limited information is dispersed over many government departments and others
stakeholders. As a result, the database is incomplete, deficient and inconsistent to an extent that it is extremely difficult to make sense of whatever is available let alone to spot trends. It will also be noted that much of the environmental data published in international databases and fact sheets does not reflect the situation on the ground and cannot be verified.

PNG seems to be in a situation where environmental degradation is proceeding and national resources are being used at a pace that is largely undocumented. There is an urgent need for a user-friendly information system, which should start with improved coordination between the numerous stakeholders to facilitate information storage, management and dissemination of
environmental information.

  • Country Profiles

  • Country Reports

  • Technical Reports

  • Country Websites

Country Profiles

Adaptation Learning Mechanism [climate change adaptation] country profiles
Papua New Guinea

Asian Development Bank Country Profiles and Strategies
Papua New Guinea

Biosafety Profiles [CBD Biosafety Clearinghouse Mechanism]
Papua New Guinea

Birdlife [Avifauna] Profiles 

see also Pacific regional overview [Birdlife International] 
see also Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) of Oceania [Birdlife International]
see also State of the World's birds website and report [Birdlife International] - including Pacific country case studies

Country Climate Profile [UNDP]
* Sourced from the Adaptation Learning Mechanism, a knowledge sharing platform developed by UNDP in partnership with the Global Environment Facility, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Bank, and the United Nations Environment Programme.

Earthtrends Thematic Country Profiles [WRI]
Agriculture and food, Biodiversity and protected areas, Climate and atmosphere, Coastal and marine ecosystems, Economics, business and the environment, Energy and resources,Environmental governance and institutions, Forests, grasslands and drylands, Population, health and human well-beingWater resources and freshwater ecosystems.

Environment Statistics - Country Snapshots [UN; 2009]
Papua New Guinea

Environmental Vulnerability Index - Country Profiles [SOPAC / UNEP]
Papua New Guinea

EU Pacific Country Environment Profiles
Papua New Guinea (2006; 673kb)

see also EU Country Partnership Profiles [incl. environment and EDF10 strategies]
Papua New Guinea

FAO Country Profiles and Mapping Information System
Papua New Guinea

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Country Profiles 
Papua New Guinea

Fishbase Biodiversity Country Profiles (all fish)
Papua New Guinea

Fisheries Resources Profiles
Papua New Guinea (1995; 7.25mb),

Forestry Country Profiles 
Forestry Department Country Profiles [FAO] 
Papua New Guinea

see also FAO Forest Resource Assessment : Country Reports [2010]
Papua New Guinea (2010; 229kb)

see also FAO Forest Resources Assessments - Data collection for the Pacific region [2000]
Papua New Guinea - pt 1 / pt 2

see also Mongabay Rainforest profiles:
Papua New Guinea

see also State of the World's Forests 2007: Asia and the Pacific [FAO] (2008; 1.77mb)
see also Tropical and subtropical forest profiles prepared by the World Wildlife Fund

Global Biodiversity Information Forum [GBIF] Country Profiles 
Papua New Guinea

see also GBIF Google Earth Country Links
Papua New Guinea

Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Profiles
Use the drop down menu to go to the individual profiles - includes GEF-4 Allocation and Utilization , Approved Projects and Projects Under Preparation

Integrated Water Resource Management Profiles [SOPAC]
Papua New Guinea

Invasive Species : Country Profiles [ISSG]
Papua New Guinea

JICA Country Environment Profiles
Papua New Guinea (2002; 355kb)

Land-based pollutants inventory for the South Pacific region: Part 2: Regional summary and country profiles [SPREP] (1993; 19mb)

Laws and legislation

Pacific islands Environmental Laws [Commonwealth Secretariat]
Papua New Guinea

SPREP National Laws and Legislation clearinghouse
Papua New Guinea

Mangrove and Wetlands Profiles [ *from Proceedings of the Pacific Regional Workshop on Mangrove Wetlands Protection and Sustainable Use . SPREP, 2002.]
Papua New Guinea (2002; 203kb)

see also: A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania [1993]
see alsoWetlands of the Pacific Island Region (2008; 882kb)
see alsoIWMI Global Wetlands - Interactive Web Map Server - includes countries of Oceania 
see alsoWetlands in Oceania - country profiles and wetlands information [UNEP-WCMC] -Papua New Guinea

Marine Resource Profiles

Status of Coral Reef Systems of the World: 2008 (2008; 20mb)

Chapter 11 - Status of the Coral Reefs in Australia and Papua New Guinea (2008; 2.69MB)

see also:

State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)

see also:

Reefbase Country Profiles (coral reefs, reef fish, biodiversity)
Papua New Guinea

see also GIS data for corals in the Pacific from Reefbase browse by country and reef profile
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and ecosystem

MPA Global Profiles (marine protected areas database)
Papua New Guinea

see also Millennium Coral Reef Mapping - South Pacific products
IMARS Geomorphological classification is publicly available on the University of South Florida web site from . Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Tonga, Samoa, New Caledonia, Cook Is, French Polynesia and East Solomon are there (PNG will hopefully be coming shortly). Files are distributed as Shapefiles (ArcGIS) and can be opened in MapInfo.

Mapservers containing country level data on land utilisation, forestry, minerals etc.
Papua New Guinea

Millenium Development Goals - Country Profiles
Papua New Guinea
see also SPC's Millenium Development Goal summaries and in particular regional data for Goal 7 - Ensure environmental sustainability

Papua New Guinea

Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum Country Data:
Papua New Guinea

Pacific Regional information System - PRISM [SPC]
Environmental and Climate Statistics 
Papua New Guinea

Plant Profiles
Papua New Guinea 
see also Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea - Volume 1Volume 2Volume 3


Protected Areas

Protected Planet - Search the World Database on Protected Areas
Protected area profiles in Papua New Guinea

Reefbase GIS data for marine protected areas in Papua New Guinea
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific - browse by country and ecosystem

SocMon profiles (Socioeconomic Monitoring Initiative for Coastal Management ) - Pacific

Papua New Guinea

SPC Country Profiles:
Papua New Guinea

SPREP Country Profiles: Exchange of Information by Members at SPREP Annual Meetings:
- Exchamge of information by Members on National Developments related to Natural Resource Management Priority of the Action Plan [2007]

see Agenda Item 6.1: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 18th SPREP Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 11th to 14th September 2007

- Exchange of information by Members on national developments related to Pollution Prevention priority of the SPREP Action Plan [2008]
see Agenda Item 8.6: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the19th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia on 8–12 September 2008

- Exchange of Information by Members on National Developments Related to the Climate Change Focus Area of the SPREP Action Plan [2009]
see Agenda Item 11.2: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 20th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 17 - 20 November 2009

- Exchange of Information by Members on Year of Biodiversity [2010]
see Agenda Item 11.3: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 21st SPREP Meeting of Officials in Madang, Papua New Guinea on 6-10 September 2010
see also individual profiles for: Wallis and Futuna

Sustainable Development Profiles (UN Agenda 21)
Papua New Guinea

Threatened species: Summary of species on the 2008 IUCN Red List
Papua New Guinea

UNCCD Country Profiles:
Papua New Guinea

UNEP Country Profiles [* poorly maintained and little information available]
Papua New Guinea

Water Resource Profiles [SOPAC - Pacific water -]
Papua New Guinea

see also "Pacific Regional Consultation on Water in Small Island Countries" - country briefing papers (2003)
Papua New Guinea

WHO Environmental Health Profiles 
Papua New Guinea

World Bank Environment indicators
Papua New Guinea

World Factbook Country Profiles [CIA]
Papua New Guinea

World Ocean Database 2005 [NOAA]
Geographically sorted data for the Pacific Ocean [datasets]

see also Environmental indicators: South Pacific (UNEP: 2004; 6.23mb)
see also Paciifc Biodiversity Information Forum website and databases 
see also 
Papua New Guinea Herpetofauna Database
see also 
Plants of Papua New Guinea
Read more

Country Reports

Asian Development Bank Country Environmental Analysis Reports
Papua New Guinea (2005; 19mb)

Barbados Programme of Action + 10 (BPoA) 
National Assessment Reports: Papua New Guinea (2005; 316kb)

Pacific Environment Outlook (2005; 30.99mb)

The Conference on Small Island Developing States (Barbados Conference, 1994) highlighted the importance of island biodiversity as an ecological corridor linking major areas of biodiversity around the world. The conference called for international co-operation and partnership to support the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in their efforts to conserve, protect and restore their ecosystems. The Barbados Plan of Action recognizes the importance of the coastal zone as a source of subsistence and economic development.

Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF9]
Papua New Guinea (2002-2007; 263kb)

Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF10]
Papua New Guinea (2008-2013; 2.82mb)

Disasters and Climate Variability in the Pacific Islands: WORLD BANK regional stocktake- Country Assessment:
Papua New Guinea (2009; 394kb)

Forestry Reports
Papua New Guinea (2008; 22mb)

Millenium Development Goals National Reports
Papua New Guinea (2004; 2.67mb)

Pacific Islands Regional MDG - Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability (2004; 324kb)
Pacific Islands Regional MDG Full Report

see also ADB Key Indicators 2006 for progress towards Millenium Development Goal 7: ensuring environmental sustainability (2006)

see also Millenium Ecosystem Assessment Website and Reports

National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plans (NBSAP)
Papua New Guinea (2007; 3.4mb)

see also National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans: Pacific Regional Review (2007; 269kb)

National Biosafety Frameworks
Papua New Guinea (2005; 1.65mb)

see also National Reports on the implementation of the Cartagena Protocol
Papua New Guinea (2008; 108kb)

National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA)

Final NCSA Report:
Papua New Guinea (2010; 618kb)

NCSA Status (NCSA website)
Papua New Guinea

National Integrated Water Resource Management : Diagnostic Reports - drafts only [SOPAC]
Papua New Guinea (2007; 2.61mb)

National Invasive Species Strategy

see Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific region: national reports and directory of resources [GISP] (2002; 3.75mb)

see also Invasives Species on Pacific Islands [reports] - HEAR / PIER project website

National [Sustainable] Development Plans / Strategies [ForumSec]
Papua New Guinea 2005 - 2010 (2004; 820kb)Papua New Guinea 2010-2050 (2009; 1.13mb)

ADB Reports: Papua New Guinea (2005; 450kb)

ADB Economic Reviews: Papua New Guinea (2000; 168kb)

National Assessment Reports:
Papua New Guinea
 (2006; 1.95mb)

Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - reports, activities and PACC news updates
Papua New Guinea

Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - report of in-country consultations 
Papua New Guinea (2009; 173kb)

Pacific Regional Consultation on Water in Small Island Countries - Country briefings
Papua New Guinea (2003; 181kb)

Pacific Regional Energy Assessment: Country Reports (PIREP) 
Papua New Guinea (2004; 2.39mb)

Regional overview report (2004; 2.59mb)

Priority Environmental Concerns (PECs) Reports
Papua New Guinea (2004; 552kb)

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: Country reports to the RAMSAR CoPs
National Reports submitted to the 8th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (2002)
Papua New Guinea pt 1 / pt 2 (2002; 216/232kb)

Sea Level & Climate: their present state: Country reports
Papua New Guinea (2006; 2.04mb)

Ships' Waste Management in Pacific Islands Ports: Country reports
Papua New Guinea

Ships' Waste Management in Pacific Islands Ports: Country reports
Papua New Guinea

State of the Environment Reports

see The New Guinea Challenge: development and conservation in societies of great cultural and biological diversity pt. 1 & pt. 2 (CSIRO. 2003)
see also The Papua New Guinea Environment Monitor 2002 [World Bank] (2002; 733kb)

see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 1983 (UNEP: 1983; 1.66mb)
see also State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 2005 (2005; 382kb; see also ~ ~) 
see also Regional perspectives: Asia and the Pacific (UNEP, GEO-4. 2007; 382 kb)

see also the archive of SPREP Country Reports between 1980-1983 as follows:
Papua New Guinea (1980; 1.04mb)

United Nations. Common Country Assessments
Papua New Guinea (2001; 2.82mb)

see also United Nations. Development Assistance Frameworks 2003-2007:
Papua New Guinea (2002; 524kb)

see also United Nations Country Programme 2008-2012
Papua New Guinea (2007; 999kb)

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD)

National Reports on Implementation of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: First Regular National Report (2007) 
Papua New Guinea (2009; 114kb), 

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Land Degradation) (UNCCD)
Second National Report: Papua New Guinea (2002; 138kb)

Third National Reports:Papua New Guinea (2006; 1.02mb)

see also UNCCD Country Profiles:
Papua New Guinea

see also UNCCD Reports clearinghouse mechanism

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

(i) National Communications and In-depth Reviews
Papua New Guinea (2000; 1.53mb)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC,1992) is concerned with global warming and the consequent rise in sea levels that may result in the flooding of coastal areas, and submerging islands, which could adversely affect coastal communities. The treaty aims at reducing emissions of greenhouse gas in order to combat global warming. Although the treaty as originally framed set no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual nations and contained no enforcement provisions; it did include provisions for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol.

World Summit on Sustainable Development [Rio+10 - Johannesburg 2002]

National Assessment Reports: 
Papua New Guinea (2002; 669kb)

Pacific WSSD Regional Assessment (2002; 91kb) and Pacific Position Paper (2004; 91kb)
see also: Synthesis Report for Asia and the Pacific (2001; 1.22mb)

The WSSD Plan of Implementation calls for the management of the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner. In this regard, to reverse the current trend in natural resource degradation as soon as possible, it is necessary to implement strategies which should include targets adopted at the national and, where appropriate, regional levels to protect ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities.

The Johannesburg Declaration and the Plan of Implementation arising from the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD, 2002) reconfirmed the commitment of States to advance and strengthen the interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development-economic development, social development and environmental protection-at the local, national, regional and global levels.

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Papua New Guinea - govt. website

Papua New Guinea - Meteorological Offiice

Papua New Guinea Office of Climate Change and Carbon Trade

Plants of Papua New Guinea
Information for students, researchers, development workers, community leaders, government and non-government agencies and others working on plant identification, conservation and diversity of plants in Papua New Guinea. Includes an internet accessible herbarium plant collection database of plants from Papua New Guinea; PNGtrees project - An interactive identification guide to the common trees of Papua New Guinea ; Plant collectors of Papua New Guinea - Information about Papua New Guinean plant collectors and support staff ; Census of Vascular Plants of Papua New Guinea - Names of vascular plants of Papua New Guinea.

Tree Kangaroo Conservation Programme
The mission of the TKCP is to establish a 150,000-acre Conservation Area on the Huon Peninsula of Papua New Guinea through community-based action that includes scientific research, education and conservation outreach. The Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program (TKCP) fosters wildlife and habitat conservation and local community livelihoods in Papua New Guinea through global partnerships, land protection and scientific research.

The little green palai
"A grassroots perspective on development issues in Papua New Guinea"

UPNG Remote Sensing Centre
The University of Papua New Guinea Remote Sensing Centre is a teaching and research facility.We provide access to remotely sensed satellite data and GIS products concerned with land-cover and land-use in Papua New Guinea. The UPNG Geobook set - an interactive, free, mapping atlas for each Province can be dowloaded from this site -

see also:

The Pacific Environment Information Network [PEIN] Regional Frameworks and Strategies Directory [SPREP]

SPREP Library and IRC collection [SLIC] - includes online full text access to a wide range of Pacific environment materials.

The Pacific Environment Information Network [PEIN] Virtual Library - full text publications from SPREP, SOPAC, SPC and other CROP agencies, Pacific govt. environment depts. , regional institutions, and NGOs active in the area of environment conservation.

Pacific Environment Databases and Recommended Internet Resources

see also:

SPREP's International Instruments' webpage
"International instruments relevant to SPREP's work in the areas of Sustainable Economic Development, Ecosystems Management, Climate Change, and Waste Management."

Academic literature and research

via Google Scholar

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