PEIN Country Profile and Virtual Environment Library
Melanesia - Pacific (Oceania)
National Focal Points for Environment:
Ministry of Environment Climate Change Disaster Management & Meteorology
A healthy environment is paramount to the well being and security of Solomon Islanders and with approximately 85 percent of the population relying on a subsistence lifestyle, sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity is critical. Loss of biodiversity and environmental services can lead to hunger, poverty, disease and conflict and is a threat to the internal security of Solomon Islands. It also leaves coastal communities vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to loss of protection for coastal habitats.
The environment and natural resources of Solomon Islands are under threat. The threats include invasive species; loss of major land and marine habitats; over exploitation of natural resources; destructive harvesting techniques; and climate change from sea level rise and more frequent destructive climatic events. The root causes stem from human activity - increasing population, increasing consumption, changing economic circumstances and the need for cash, the drive for a more technological world, even globalisation.
The population of Solomon Islands is increasing at approximately 4.4% annually. This is putting pressure on natural resources and land for food and food production, building materials, and other life support systems. Land is cleared for timber, forestry, oil palm plantations, farming, urban and rural developments and infrastructure. Marine habitats are damaged from destructive fishing practices such as dynamite and poisons, pollution and harvesting of rock and coral. Solomon Islanders are moving to a cash economy for school fees, petrol and kerosene and for processed foods. This is resulting in a loss of traditional methods of natural resource management and use.
Compounding the impacts of human pressure is the threat of climate change and sea level rise. Unfortunately for Small Islands States like Solomon Islands, the developed countries are the main producers of greenhouse gases and other climate changing factors. However, the effects will severely impact coastal communities, islands and atolls unless there is a serious attempt at national level mitigation and adaptive measures to ensure Solomon Islands is prepared to deal with the changes and impacts.
The increasing pressures on the environment require action. Multilateral environmental agreements such as the Rio Conventions on Biological Diversity, Climate Change and Combating Desertification have been designed specifically for the international community to meet international goals through national actions. However, there are a number of cross-cutting constraints which impact on the ability of Solomon Islands to meet the commitments of these three international conventions. They include:
- Poor governance;
- Ineffective legislation and policy framework;
- Institutional, technical and capacity weaknesses;
- Lack of public awareness & information sharing for sound environmental management & decision making;
- Lack of scientific knowledge of and research into Solomon Islands environmental issues including sustainable development, impacts of climate change and biodiversity;
- Lack of mainstreaming environmental considerations, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development across government programmes;
- Poor technology transfer and development;
- Gaps in human capacity and development; and
- Limited access to financial mechanisms and lack of financial and economic incentives.
These capacity constraints also impact on Solomon Islands’ ability to address national environmental issues. The capacity constraints are compounded by the previous ethnic tension and civil strife experienced from 1998 to 2003. Solomon Islands is still experiencing periods of political instability. Building capacity to meet international commitments of the three Rio Conventions will have significant synergies with the capacity needed for national actions to address environmental, economic and social issues facing Solomon Islands.
*Excerpts from 'Solomon Islands State of the Environment Report 2008'
Causes of Environmental Change
Population pressures – subsistence use intensification
There has been considerable intensification of land use in the country over the past three decades. This is caused by the rapidly increasing population. The population estimate for Solomon Islands is around half a million with average annual population growth rate of 2.8%.
Conversion of large tracts of land, mostly fertile coastal lands into commercial plantations is a significant threat to biodiversity; adds pressure on land resources by displacing domestic food gardening and if not managed properly will pollute river systems and coastal marine ecosystems due to excessive runoff and siltation during heavy rains. If not managed, these all have considerable potential to impact the country’s rapidly growing population.
Urbanization is recognized as one of the principal causes of environmental change. With regard to the distribution of the urban population, Honiara, with a 1999 population of 49,107, accounts for more than three quarters of the total urban population of 63,732. If the adjoining urban areas of
Guadalcanal are included, ‘greater Honiara’ represents 82% of the urban population of the Solomon Islands.
The total population increase and the urban increase (particularly in Honiara where fuelwood is becoming increasingly scarce) and utilities companieis like SIWA and SIEA are struggling to maintain regular supply has great impact on the urban environment.
Open pit mining has been limited to date to the Gold Ridge Mine on Guadalcanal. The environmental impacts of this mode of minerals exploitation are to the immediate environs of the mine site due to deforestation and earth removal for the pit and ancillary earthworks; and to the riverine drainage systems in the area which are the potential end points for any chemicals escaping the mine itself. To date the Gold there has been no evidence of the latter, although there are persistent concerns about the stability and integrity of the mine water dam downslope
from the mine pit itself. As mining impacts accelerate in the country, these concerns will become increasingly widespread and important.
There are several resources within the environment that are being exploited at unsustainable rates, but the most pressing is the country’s forest resource. A critical situation exists with the forests.
Fishing and marine exports
Most marine ecosystems such as mangroves, lagoons and reefs are also being overexploited
in many areas. While population growth is responsible for additional pressure on these ecosystems almost everywhere, commercial extraction is worsening these effects in many cases. Beche-de-mer, trochus, crab and reef fish gathering activities are all contributing to ecosystem decline to different degrees throughout the country.
Pollution is discussed here in relation to fresh water resources. Many households in the country do not have access to water supply systems and still rely on stream and rivers to obtain water for drinking and household use. Pollution to the coastal and marine environment emanates from two main sources: (a) Land-based sources and through rivers and streams and (b) Sea-based sources. Pollution from agricultural and logging activities such as soil erosion, siltation, land
use and run-offs, at the moment still does not pose major threats to the marine environment except in particular locales such as urban areas of sites of intense land clearing and plantation agriculture. In Honiara alone, at least 75% of sewage flow through a piped collection system directly into the sea without treatment. Discharges from ships in the form of garbage, bilge water and other pollutants are a major source of sea-based pollution. An increase in these forms of pollution is already a concern as more ships are coming into and using the country’s harbours and waters. Local ships are also contributing to these forms of pollution.
Energy Production and Use
The majority of energy use is biomass, for cooking and for drying copra and cocoa for export. However, the accessible fuelwood are increasingly scarce in some areas. For some parts of the country, the major fuel woods for copra drying is mangrove forest, and its overuse is now a major contributing factor to coastal erosion.
Already extreme weather events in the country in recent years serve as a forewarning of the impacts on the environment that are likely to occur due to climate change. Climate change also poses risks to natural ecosystems such as the coastal and marine environments, fisheries, agriculture, water resources, health, biodiversity, infrastructure and industry.
Fresh Water Stress
The fresh water resource is currently under stress as indicated through the following:
· Erosion and sedimentation of stream and river systems from logging operations, subsistence cultivation on sloping lands and land clearing for plantations affect water quality and thus degrades reefs, mangrove areas and coastal fisheries. There is poor understanding amongst loggers and communities of effects of land clearing, logging, erosion and downstream effects on
reefs and fisheries. · Indiscriminate land clearing through subsistence food production, for
plantation and commercial logging is resulting in catchment drying. Recently, the Honiara water supply source has seen a 50% drop in water availability in the catchment (50%).
Pollution problems in river catchments are also increasing with rapid population growth, reflecting
inadequate planning to control development in catchments and conflicting regulatory decisions such as the granting of development rights and logging licenses in catchment or conservation areas.
Increasing salinisation of ground water in most coastal villages and those on atoll islands due to
ingression of seawater during extreme weather events or as an ongoing trend.
Soil Stress and Degradation
Serious soil stress is experienced through low crop yield and high incidence of pest and
diseases. This stress resulted from diverse pressures such as: high population growth
and/or density, uncontrolled large scale forestry, large intensive agriculture developments, displacement of traditional land and resource management systems, land tenure issues, introduced agricultural systems, mining and changes to customary farming practices. A lack of quality spatial information means that the full extent of soil stress and land degradation cannot yet be ascertained. While the extent of the problem is not known, soil stress and land degradation
are recognized as major problems confronting the Solomon Islands (GoSI National Assessment Report to the WSSD, May 2002). There is considerable scope for vicious circles driving worsening degradation. As land is degraded it becomes a haven for invasive species, because of a diminished ability of the ecosystem to control them. Invasive species in turn affect the soil-nutrient moisture regimes of catchments, leading to poor soil structures and further fertility decline. Most
of the accessible soils have fertility and/or micronutrient deficiencies and increased exposure results in soil leaching and erosion with great impact on soil quality and subsequently low crop yield.
With depletion of forest resource, communities are finding it increasingly difficult to access forest products and materials for housing, food, and good quality water which are important for village
livelihood. Much of the deforestation over large tracts of land occurs on very steep land.
Serious erosion, siltation, soil structure decline and loss of soil fertility threatens terrestrial and marine biodiversity, and the ecological service and functions of local water and coastal systems as well as the production potential of the land.
Loss of Biodiversity
Land based activities including Agriculture, forestry and mining exerted pressure on the terrestrial environment which led to loss of biodiversity, invasive alien species, land degradation, impact inland aquatic. Inappropriate land use, deforestation activities and over harvesting of marine
resources is resulting in loss of biodiversity but no data is available on rate of biodiversity
loss. Although Solomon Islands comprises some of the most diverse ecosystems in the world (The World Bank, 2007), little attention is given to biodiversity and environmental conservation except for a few initiatives. Solomon Islands animal and plant life possess international importance. It is reported that there is a great diversity of land animals than in any other pacific island nation – 223 birds, 52 native mammals, 61 land reptiles, and 17 different frogs. Many of these animals are
endemic (Office of the United Nations Resident Coordinator 2002). Henderson and
Hancock (1988) also identified a total of 3, 210 vascular plants.
Fish Stock Depletion and Coral Reef Degradation
While population growth is responsible for additional pressure on these ecosystems almost everywhere, commercial extraction is worsening these effects in many cases. Overexploitation
for both subsistence and commercial use has resulted in severe depletion of several important food and commercial species. These include greensnails, blacklip and goldlip shells, coconut crabs, giant clam and sandfish (sea cucumber). Other species such as trochus, crayfish/lobster and turtles though are under some form of protection (regulation) are also threatened. Two commercial companies are currently engaged in coral export but there is no monitoring system in place to check on their activities. These activities are all contributing to ecosystem decline to different degrees throughout the country. This pattern of overuse and non-existent or inadequate
regulation limits the productivity of inshore fisheries to provide much needed protein in the population’s diet, as well as preventing ongoing, reliable income generation from marine product exports. Natural disaster such as cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tidal waves, impact greatly on coastal environments and can have destruction effect not only physically but by the alteration of the ecosystem. Such phenomena have not been seriously considered before but have the capacity of destroying endangered species and the coral reefs.
The national institution charged with environmental management and monitoring is the ECD in the Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Meteorology. This is a new ministry created by the Sikua led Government (CNURA) in 2008.
Adaptation Learning Mechanism [climate change adaptation] country profiles
Asian Development Bank Country Profiles and Strategies
Biosafety Profiles [CBD Biosafety Clearinghouse Mechanism]
Birdlife [Avifauna] Profiles
see also Species profiles [*For the Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable), each factsheet contains a summary account, range map and an illustration, plus additional data tables. For Extinct, Extinct in the Wild, Near Threatened, Least Concern and Data Deficient species, each contains a concise summary paragraph and some additional data tables.] [Birdlife International]
see also Endemic Bird Areas [EBAs] of the Pacific [incl. Aitutaki (secondary area) ; East Caroline Islands ; Fiji ; Gilbert Islands (secondary area) ; Henderson Island ; Mariana Islands ; Marquesas Islands ; Marshall Islands (secondary area) ; Nauru (secondary area) ; Niuafo‘ou (secondary area) ; Niue (secondary area) ; Northern Line Islands (secondary area) ; Palau ; Pitcairn (secondary area) ; Rapa (secondary area) ; Rimatara ; Rotuma (secondary area) ; Samoan Islands ; Society Islands ; Southern Cook Islands ; Tonga (secondary area) ; Tuamotu archipelago ; Wake Island (secondary area) ; Wallis and Futuna (secondary area) ; Yap Islands ] [Birdlife International]
see also Important bird areas of the Pacific [IBAs] (2010) [Birdlife Pacific]
* order the complete CD-ROM 'Important bird areas in the Pacific: a compendium' from theSPREP IRC
see also Pacific regional overview [Birdlife International]
see also Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) of Oceania [Birdlife International]
see also State of the World's birds website and report [Birdlife International] - including Pacific country case studies
Country Climate Profile [UNDP]
* Sourced from the Adaptation Learning Mechanism, a knowledge sharing platform developed by UNDP in partnership with the Global Environment Facility, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Bank, and the United Nations Environment Programme.
Earthtrends Thematic Country Profiles [WRI]
Agriculture and food, Biodiversity and protected areas, Climate and atmosphere, Coastal and marine ecosystems, Economics, business and the environment, Energy and resources,Environmental governance and institutions, Forests, grasslands and drylands, Population, health and human well-being, Water resources and freshwater ecosystems.
Environmental Vulnerability Index - Country Profiles [SOPAC / UNEP]
EU Pacific Country Environment Profiles
see EU Country Partnership Profiles [incl. environment and EDF10 strategies]
Fishbase Biodiversity Country Profiles (all fish)
Forestry Country Profiles
Forestry Department Country Profiles [FAO]
see also FAO Forest Resource Assessment : Country Reports 
Solomon Islands (2010; 262kb)
see also State of the World's Forests 2007: Asia and the Pacific [FAO] (2008; 1.77mb)
see also Tropical and subtropical forest profiles prepared by the World Wildlife Fund
see also Mongabay Rainforest profiles:
Global Biodiversity Information Forum [GBIF] Country Profiles
see also GBIF Google Earth Country Links
Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Profiles
Use the drop down menu to go to the individual profiles - includes GEF-4 Allocation and Utilization , Approved Projects and Projects Under Preparation
Integrated Coastal Management Profiles
Integrated Water Resource Management Profiles [SOPAC]
Invasive Species : Country Profiles [ISSG]
Laws and legislation
see also 'Legislative reviews' in Country Reports (below)
Mangrove and Wetlands Profiles [ *from Proceedings of the Pacific Regional Workshop on Mangrove Wetlands Protection and Sustainable Use . SPREP, 2002.]
Solomon Islands (2002; 255kb), Solomon Islands (2006; 2.17mb)
see also: A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania 
see also: Wetlands of the Pacific Island Region (2008; 882kb)
see also: IWMI Global Wetlands - Interactive Web Map Server - includes countries of Oceania
Marine Resource Profiles
Solomon Islands [TNC] (2006; 6.89mb)
State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)
Reefbase Country Profiles (coral reefs, reef fish, biodiversity)
Status of Coral Reef Systems of the World: 2008 (2008; 20mb)
see also GIS data for corals in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and reef profile
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and ecosystem
MPA Global Profiles (marine protected areas database)
see also Millennium Coral Reef Mapping - South Pacific products
IMARS Geomorphological classification is publicly available on the University of South Florida web site from http://www.imars.usf.edu/MC/output_south_pacific.html . Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Tonga, Samoa, New Caledonia, Cook Is, French Polynesia and East Solomon are there (PNG will hopefully be coming shortly). Files are distributed as Shapefiles (ArcGIS) and can be opened in MapInfo.
Mapservers containing country level data on land utilisation, forestry, minerals etc.
Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum Country Data:
Pacific Regional information System - PRISM [SPC]
Environmental and Climate Statistics
Political Reviews [Contemporary Pacific]
Reefbase GIS data for marine protected areas in the Solomon Islands
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific - browse by country and ecosystem
SPREP Country Profiles: Exchange of Information by Members at SPREP Annual Meetings:
- Exchamge of information by Members on National Developments related to Natural Resource Management Priority of the Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 6.1: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 18th SPREP Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 11th to 14th September 2007
- Exchange of information by Members on national developments related to Pollution Prevention priority of the SPREP Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 8.6: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the19th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia on 8–12 September 2008
- Exchange of Information by Members on National Developments Related to the Climate Change Focus Area of the SPREP Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 11.2: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 20th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 17 - 20 November 2009
- Exchange of Information by Members on Year of Biodiversity 
see Agenda Item 11.3: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 21st SPREP Meeting of Officials in Madang, Papua New Guinea on 6-10 September 2010
see also individual profiles for: Wallis and Futuna
Sustainable Development Profiles (UN Agenda 21)
Threatened species: Summary of species on the 2008 IUCN Red List
UNEP Country Profiles [* poorly maintained and little information available]
see also "Pacific Regional Consultation on Water in Small Island Countries" - country briefing papers (2003)
WHO Environmental Health Profiles
World Bank Environment indicators
World Factbook Country Profiles [CIA]
World Ocean Database 2005 [NOAA]
Geographically sorted data for the Pacific Ocean [datasets]
see also Environmental indicators: South Pacific (UNEP: 2004; 6.23mb)see also Paciifc Biodiversity Information Forum website and databases
Asian Development Bank Country Environmental Analysis Reports
Solomon Islands (2007; 929kb)
Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF9]
Solomon Islands (2002-2007;152kb)
Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF10]
Solomon Islands (2008-2013; 2.82mb)
Least Developed Country [LCDs] reports
Solomon Islands (2004; 3.82mb)
see also 'Voices of the Least Developed Countries of Asia and the Pacific' (2005; 1.46mb)
Marine turtle legislative reviews:
Solomon Islands (2010; 973kb)
Mauritius Strategy + 5 Review: National Assessment Reports [5-year Review of Progress Made in Addressing Vulnerabilities of Small Islands Developing States Through Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Further Implementation (MSI) of the
Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) ]
Solomon Islands (2010; 633kb)
Montreal Protocol: National Compliance Action Strategies to implement the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Solomon Islands (2001; 595kb)
National Adaptation Plan of Action - NAPA - [Climate change]
Solomon Islands (2008; 5.01mb)
National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plans (NBSAP)
Solomon Islands (2009; 13mb)
National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA)
Stocktake Reports: Solomon Islands (2006; 884kb)
Land degradation: Solomon Islands (2006; 567kb)
Cross-cutting Analysis: Solomon Islands (2006; 854kb)
Final NCSA Report:
Solomon Islands (2008; 273kb)
NCSA Status (NCSA website)
National Integrated Water Resource Management : Diagnostic Reports - drafts only [SOPAC]
Solomon Islands (2007; 1.93mb)
National Invasive Species Strategy
see Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific region: national reports and directory of resources [GISP] (2002; 3.75mb)
see also Invasives Species on Pacific Islands [reports] - HEAR / PIER project website
National Assessment Reports: Solomon Islands (2006; 395kb)
ADB Reports: Solomon Islands (2004; 218kb)
Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - reports, activities and PACC news updates
Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - report of in-country consultations
Solomon Islands (2009; 189kb)
Pacific Regional Consultation on Water in Small Island Countries - Country briefings
Solomon Islands (2003; 409kb)
Pacific Regional Energy Assessment: Country Reports (PIREP)
Solomon Islands (2004; 1.8mb)
Regional overview report (2004; 2.59mb)
Peristant Organic Pollutants (POPs): Country Plans
Solomon Islands (2003; 524kb)
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention, 1989), the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (Rotterdam Convention, 1998) and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (Stockholm Convention, 2001) together provide an international framework for the environmentally sound management of hazardous chemicals throughout their life cycles.
Ships' Waste Management in Pacific Islands Ports: Country reports
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 1983 (UNEP: 1983; 1.66mb)
see also State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 2005 (2005; 382kb; see also ~http://www.unescap.org/esd/environment/soe/2005/mainpub/ ~)
see also Regional perspectives: Asia and the Pacific (UNEP, GEO-4. 2007; 382 kb)
see also the archive of SPREP Country Reports between 1980-1983 as follows:
Solomon Islands (1981; 271kb)
United Nations. Common Country Assessments
Solomon Islands (2002; 921kb)
see also United Nations. Development Assistance Frameworks 2003-2007:
Solomon Islands (2002; 2.75mb)
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED: Brazil, 1992)
Country Reports : Solomon Islands (1992)
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, 1992) and the Rio Declaration highlighted the need for sustainable development-socially responsible economic development that protects the resource base and the environment for the benefit of future generations. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, also highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
see also Country profiles compiled by the Secretariat for the UNCBD.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Land Degradation) (UNCCD)
Second National Report: Solomon Islands (2002; 66kb)
Third National Report: Solomon Islands (2006; 332kb)
The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
(i) National Communications and In-depth Reviews
Solomon Islands (2001; 2.12mb)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC,1992) is concerned with global warming and the consequent rise in sea levels that may result in the flooding of coastal areas, and submerging islands, which could adversely affect coastal communities. The treaty aims at reducing emissions of greenhouse gas in order to combat global warming. Although the treaty as originally framed set no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual nations and contained no enforcement provisions; it did include provisions for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol.
World Summit on Sustainable Development [Rio+10 - Johannesburg 2002]
National Assessment Reports:
Solomon Islands (2002; 227kb)
The WSSD Plan of Implementation calls for the management of the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner. In this regard, to reverse the current trend in natural resource degradation as soon as possible, it is necessary to implement strategies which should include targets adopted at the national and, where appropriate, regional levels to protect ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities.
The Johannesburg Declaration and the Plan of Implementation arising from the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD, 2002) reconfirmed the commitment of States to advance and strengthen the interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development-economic development, social development and environmental protection-at the local, national, regional and global levels.
Ministerial and Department ReportsMinistry of Environment, Conservation and Meteorology : Corporate Plan 2008-2010
Reports available online from the SPREP Library and IRC database
Reports available online from SOPAC [Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission]
Reports available online from ReefBase Pacific
Solomon Islands govt.
Tetepare: the last wild island [Solomon Islands]
"Tetepare Island is one of the conservation jewels of the Solomons Islands. This long, rugged island cloaked in rainforest and fringed with biodiverse reefs is the largest uninhabited island in the South Pacific. Home to the one of the Solomon Islands' leading conservation projects and a unique, locally-run ecolodge, Tetepare is attracting visitors from around the world. "
SPREP Library and IRC collection [SLIC] - includes online full text access to a wide range of Pacific environment materials.
The Pacific Environment Information Network [PEIN] Virtual Library - full text publications from SPREP, SOPAC, SPC and other CROP agencies, Pacific govt. environment depts. , regional institutions, and NGOs active in the area of environment conservation.
SPREP's International Instruments' webpage
"International instruments relevant to SPREP's work in the areas of Sustainable Economic Development, Ecosystems Management, Climate Change, and Waste Management."
Academic literature and researchvia Google Scholar