Atmospheric Pollution

MONTREAL PROTOCOL 

                                                         ozono

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985

The Convention
The 
Vienna convention is a multilateral agreement entered into force in 1988. 187 Parties are part to this Convention and relative protocols. Since at that time countries could not agree on specific control measures  the Convention is just a framework treaty in which States agree to cooperate in relevant research and scientific assessments of the ozone problem, to exchange information, and to adopt “appropriate measures” to prevent activities that harm the ozone layer. It sets general obligations and contains no specific limits on chemicals that deplete the ozone layer. 

The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol established the precedent in UNEP for completing a framework agreement, followed later by one or more Protocols. This precedent has been used frequently since then, as in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity.


The Montreal Protocol, 1987

The Protocol
In order to implement the Vienna Convention and set real obligations for the countries to control the production and consumption of the specific chemicals which deplete the ozone layer (ODS) the Montreal Protocol has been signed in 1987. After the success of the Monteral Protocol, also other protocols have been adopted in behalf of the Convention in order to create new committments of reduction of ODS. More detailed information:
Ozone layer depleting substance: here

The Montreal Protocol includes a unique adjustment provision that enables the Parties to the Protocol to respond quickly to new scientific information and agree to accelerate the reductions required on chemicals already covered by the Protocol. These adjustments are then automatically applicable to all countries that ratified the Protocol. Since its initial adoption, the Montreal Protocol has been adjusted five times. Furthermore the Protocol has been subject to admendments.There have been four Amendments to the Protocol: the London, Copenhagen, Montreal, and Beijing Amendments.

The provisions 
The Protocol commits the parties to gradually reduce, unitil complete ban, the production and consumption of ODS. Based on the "common and shared responsabilities" principle the protocol sets two different reduction obligations for developing (non art.5(1) countries) and non-developing countries (art.5(1) countries).

CFC and Halons: 
Developing countries: Reduction and total ban by 1996.
Non-Developing countries: Reduction and total ban by 2010.

HCFC:
Developing countries: reduction and total ban by 2030.
Non developing countries: reduction and total ban by 2040. 

New technologies and instruments have been developed with the support of UNEP Secretariat for the Convention and of the assessment panel, in order to facilitate the parties accomplishment of the Protocol.
More info:
The Protocol in the Pacific: 
All the pacific Islands Countries have acceded the Convention and Protocols. 

Moreover many Pacific Islands have put in force legislative instruments in order  to comply with the Convention and ban the production and consumption of ODS. Fore more information look at: PAClii
For details on the fullfillment of the Convention Goals by the Pacific Island Countries: Ozone Secretariat - Data Access Centre



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