PEIN Country Profile and Virtual Environment Library


Capital City: tuvalumap
Polynesia - Pacific (Oceania)
Tuvaluan, English
National Focal Points for Environment:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trade, Tourism, Environment and Labour


* Excerpt from 'Tuvalu National Strategy for Sustainable Development: 2005 - 2015'


Tuvalu is ranked one of the most environmentally vulnerable states in the region, largely because of its low relief and small land area. The key risks confronting the environment in are: 

sea level rise as a result of climate change; rising population density in Funafuti; decline in traditional resource management; unsustainable use of natural resources;  poor waste management and pollution control.

Key Policy Objectives from 2005-2015

Stop unregulated development and degradation of the environment - especially on Funafuti. Increase the number of marine and terrestrial conservation areas. Minimise climate change impacts. Waste management is one of the most pressing problems and has direct implications for human and ecosystem health, especially in Funafuti. If collected and disposed of properly, this will lead to less potential pollution of lagoon waters and less accumulation of waste that is a latent source of disease and other public health issues.

Environmental management must confront two key challenges:

1) the numerous issues arising from the growing urbanisation of Funafuti, and

2) the national impacts associated with climate change and sea level rise, specifically salt-water inundation of pulaka pits, coastal erosion and flooding, which are blamed either wholly or partly
on global warming. 

Priorities and strategies for the environment from 2005 to 2015.

Develop and implement an urban and waste management plan for Funafuti. Establish national climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. Encourage international adoption of Multilateral Environmental Agreements,
including the Kyoto Protocol. Increase the number of conservation areas and ensure regulatory compliance

  • Country Profiles

  • Country Reports

  • Technical Reports

  • Country Websites

Country Profiles

Adaptation Learning Mechanism [climate change adaptation] country profiles

Asian Development Bank Country Profiles and Strategies

Biosafety Profiles [CBD Biosafety Clearinghouse Mechanism]

Birdlife [Avifauna] Profiles 

see Avibase - Bird Checklists of the World - browsable by country and by individual island within the Pacific region - excellent data source 

see also a checklists of birds of FIJI, AMERICAN SAMOA, NIUE, SAMOA, TOKELAU, TONGA, TUVALU AND WALLIS & FUTUNA compiled by Dick Watling

see also Species profiles [*For the Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable), each factsheet contains a summary account, range map and an illustration, plus additional data tables. For Extinct, Extinct in the Wild, Near Threatened, Least Concern and Data Deficient species, each contains a concise summary paragraph and some additional data tables.] [Birdlife International]

see also Endemic Bird Areas [EBAs] of the Pacific [incl. Aitutaki (secondary area) ; East Caroline Islands ; Fiji ; Gilbert Islands (secondary area) ; Henderson Island ; Mariana Islands ; Marquesas Islands ; Marshall Islands (secondary area) ; Nauru (secondary area) ; Niuafo‘ou (secondary area) ; Niue (secondary area) ; Northern Line Islands (secondary area) ; Palau ; Pitcairn (secondary area) ; Rapa (secondary area) ; Rimatara ; Rotuma (secondary area) ; Samoan Islands ; Society Islands ; Southern Cook Islands ; Tonga (secondary area) ; Tuamotu archipelago ; Wake Island (secondary area) ; Wallis and Futuna (secondary area) ; Yap Islands ] [Birdlife International]

see also Important bird areas of the Pacific [IBAs] (2010) [Birdlife Pacific]

IBA Profiles: 

IBA Reports:

* order the complete CD-ROM 'Important bird areas in the Pacific: a compendium' from theSPREP IRC

see also Pacific regional overview [Birdlife International] 
see also Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) of Oceania [Birdlife International]
see also State of the World's birds website and report [Birdlife International] - including Pacific country case studies

Climate Lab profiles

Country Climate Profile [UNDP]
* Sourced from the Adaptation Learning Mechanism, a knowledge sharing platform developed by UNDP in partnership with the Global Environment Facility, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Bank, and the United Nations Environment Programme.

Earthtrends Thematic Country Profiles [WRI]
Agriculture and food, Biodiversity and protected areas, Climate and atmosphere, Coastal and marine ecosystems, Economics, business and the environment, Energy and resources,Environmental governance and institutions, Forests, grasslands and drylands, Population, health and human well-beingWater resources and freshwater ecosystems.

Ecoregion Profiles [World Wildlife Fund]
Tropical Moist Forests 
Western Polynesia [Tokelau, Tuvalu, Kiribati]

Environment Statistics - Country Snapshots [UN; 2009]

Environmental Vulnerability Index - Country Profiles [SOPAC / UNEP]

EU Pacific Country Environment Profiles

see also EU Country Partnership Profiles [incl. environment and EDF10 strategies]

FAO Country Profiles and Mapping Information System

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Country Profiles 

Fishbase Biodiversity Country Profiles (all fish)

Forestry Country Profiles 
Forestry Department Country Profiles [FAO] 

see also FAO Forest Resource Assessment : Country Reports [2010]
Tuvalu (2010; 71kb)

see also State of the World's Forests 2007: Asia and the Pacific [FAO] (2008; 1.77mb)
see also Tropical and subtropical forest profiles prepared by the World Wildlife Fund

see also Mongabay Rainforest profiles:

Global Biodiversity Information Forum [GBIF] Country Profiles 

see also GBIF Google Earth Country Links

Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Profiles
Use the drop down menu to go to the individual profiles - includes GEF-4 Allocation and Utilization , Approved Projects and Projects Under Preparation

Integrated Water Resource Management Profiles [SOPAC]

Invasive Species : Country Profiles [ISSG]

Land-based pollutants inventory for the South Pacific region: Part 2: Regional summary and country profiles [SPREP] (1993; 19mb)

Laws and legislation

Pacific islands Environmental Laws [Commonwealth Secretariat]

SPREP National Laws and Legislation clearinghouse

see also 'Legislative reviews' in Country Reports (below)

Mangrove and Wetlands Profiles

see also: A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania [1993]
see alsoWetlands of the Pacific Island Region (2008; 882kb)
see alsoIWMI Global Wetlands - Interactive Web Map Server - includes countries of Oceania 

Marine Resource Profiles

see :

Reefbase Country Profiles (coral reefs, reef fish, biodiversity)

see also:

Status of Coral Reef Systems of the World: 2008 (2008; 20mb)

Chapter 12 - Status of the Coral Reefs in the South West Pacific: Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu (2008; 1.79mb)

see also GIS data for corals in the Pacific from Reefbase browse by country and reef profile
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and ecosystem

MPA Global Profiles (marine protected areas database)

see also Millennium Coral Reef Mapping - South Pacific products
IMARS Geomorphological classification is publicly available on the University of South Florida web site from . Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Tonga, Samoa, New Caledonia, Cook Is, French Polynesia and East Solomon are there (PNG will hopefully be coming shortly). Files are distributed as Shapefiles (ArcGIS) and can be opened in MapInfo.

Mapservers containing country level data on land utilisation, forestry, minerals etc.

Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum Country Data:

Pacific Regional information System - PRISM [SPC]
Environmental and Climate Statistics 

Political Reviews [Contemporary Pacific]
Tuvalu plus Tuvalu update


Protected Areas

Protected Planet - Search the World Database on Protected Areas
Protected area profiles in Tuvalu

Reefbase GIS data for marine protected areas in Tuvalu
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific - browse by country and ecosystem

SPREP Country Profiles: Exchange of Information by Members at SPREP Annual Meetings:
- Exchamge of information by Members on National Developments related to Natural Resource Management Priority of the Action Plan [2007]

see Agenda Item 6.1: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 18th SPREP Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 11th to 14th September 2007

- Exchange of information by Members on national developments related to Pollution Prevention priority of the SPREP Action Plan [2008]
see Agenda Item 8.6: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the19th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia on 8–12 September 2008

- Exchange of Information by Members on National Developments Related to the Climate Change Focus Area of the SPREP Action Plan [2009]
see Agenda Item 11.2: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 20th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 17 - 20 November 2009

- Exchange of Information by Members on Year of Biodiversity [2010]
see Agenda Item 11.3: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 21st SPREP Meeting of Officials in Madang, Papua New Guinea on 6-10 September 2010
see also individual profiles for: Wallis and Futuna

Sustainable Development Profiles (UN Agenda 21)

Threatened species: Summary of species on the 2008 IUCN Red List

UNCCD Country Profiles:

UNEP Country Profiles [* poorly maintained and little information available]

Water Resource Profiles [SOPAC - Pacific water -]

WHO Environmental Health Profiles 

World Factbook Country Profiles [CIA]

World Ocean Database 2005 [NOAA]
Geographically sorted data for the Pacific Ocean [datasets]

see also Environmental indicators: South Pacific (UNEP: 2004; 6.23mb)
see also Polynesia / Micronesia Biodiversity Hotspot Ecosystem Profile (2007; 1.16mb)

see also Paciifc Biodiversity Information Forum website and databases
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Country Reports

Barbados Programme of Action + 10 (BPoA) 

National Assessment Reports: 
Tuvalu (2003; 57kb)

Pacific Environment Outlook
 (2005; 30.99mb)

The Conference on Small Island Developing States (Barbados Conference, 1994) highlighted the importance of island biodiversity as an ecological corridor linking major areas of biodiversity around the world. The conference called for international co-operation and partnership to support the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in their efforts to conserve, protect and restore their ecosystems. The Barbados Plan of Action recognizes the importance of the coastal zone as a source of subsistence and economic development.

Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF9]
Tuvalu (2002-2007; 1.17mb)

Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF10]
Tuvalu (2008-2013; 2.98mb)

Least Developed Country [LCDs] reports
Tuvalu (2006?; 389kb)

see also 'Voices of the Least Developed Countries of Asia and the Pacific' (2005; 1.46mb)

Legislative Reviews 
Tuvalu (1994; 9.22mb) / Tuvalu (2007; 240kb)

see also:

Marine turtle legislative reviews:
Tuvalu (2010; 618kb)

Mauritius Strategy + 5 Review: National Assessment Reports [5-year Review of Progress Made in Addressing Vulnerabilities of Small Islands Developing States Through Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Further Implementation (MSI) of the
Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) ] 

Tuvalu (2010; 641kb)

Millenium Development Goals National Reports
Tuvalu (2006; 1.09mb)

Pacific Islands Regional MDG - Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability (2004; 324kb)
Pacific Islands Regional MDG Full Report

see also ADB Key Indicators 2006 for progress towards Millenium Development Goal 7: ensuring environmental sustainability (2006)

see also Millenium Ecosystem Assessment Website and Reports

Montreal Protocol: National Compliance Action Strategies to implement the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Tuvalu ( 111kb)

National Action Programmes (NAP) to combat land degradation [UNCCD]
Tuvalu (2006; 636kb)

National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA) 
NCSA Status (NCSA website)

National Climate Change Policy
Tuvalu (2012, 600KB) NEW!!!

National Communications Support Programme [Climate] Profiles

National Disaster Risk Management Plan
Tuvalu (2012-2016, 1MB)

National Environment Management Strategy (NEMS) 

Tuvalu (1997; 8.86mb)

National Integrated Water Resource Management : Diagnostic Reports - drafts only [SOPAC]
Tuvalu (2007; 815kb)

National Invasive Species Strategy

see Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific region: national reports and directory of resources [GISP] (2002; 3.75mb)

see also Invasives Species on Pacific Islands [reports] - HEAR / PIER project website

National [Sustainable] Development Plans / Strategies [ForumSec]
Tuvalu : Tekakeega II 2005-2015 (2005; 1.36mb)

National Assessment Reports: 
Tuvalu (2003; 826kb)

ADB Reports: 
Tuvalu (2003; 325kb)

see also:

SPC Country Joint Country Stategies in support of National Strategies for Sustainable Development :

Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - reports, activities and PACC news updates

Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - report of in-country consultations 
Tuvalu (2009; 116kb)

Pacific Regional Energy Assessment: Country Reports (PIREP) 
Tuvalu (2004; 1.81mb)

Regional overview report (2004; 2.59mb)

Peristant Organic Pollutants (POPs): Country Plans
Tuvalu (2003; 313kb)

National Implementation Plans (NIPs)
Tuvalu (2008; 1.2mb)

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention, 1989), the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (Rotterdam Convention, 1998) and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (Stockholm Convention, 2001) together provide an international framework for the environmentally sound management of hazardous chemicals throughout their life cycles.

Sea Level & Climate: their present state: Country reports
Tuvalu (2006; 2.14mb)

Ships' Waste Management in Pacific Islands Ports: Country reports

Solid Waste Characterisation and Management Plans
Tuvalu (2000; 240kb)

State of the Environment Reports
Tuvalu (1993; 9.2mb)

see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 1983 (UNEP: 1983; 1.66mb)
see also State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 2005 (2005; 382kb; see also ~ ~) 
see also Regional perspectives: Asia and the Pacific (UNEP, GEO-4. 2007; 382 kb)

see also the archive of SPREP Country Reports between 1980-1983 as follows:
Tuvalu (1981; 589kb)

United Nations. Common Country Assessments
Tuvalu (2002; 828kb)

see also United Nations. Development Assistance Frameworks 2003-2007:
Tuvalu (2002; 464kb)

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED: Brazil, 1992)
Country Reports : Tuvalu (1992; 42mb)

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, 1992) and the Rio Declaration highlighted the need for sustainable development-socially responsible economic development that protects the resource base and the environment for the benefit of future generations. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, also highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD)
National Reports: Tuvalu 4 (2009; 570kb)

see also Country profiles compiled by the Secretariat for the UNCBD.

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Land Degradation) (UNCCD)
First National Reports:
Tuvalu (2000; 482kb)

Second National Reports:
Tuvalu (2002; 42kb)

National Action Programmes (NAP) to combat land degradation 
Tuvalu (2006; 636kb)

see also UNCCD Country Profiles:

see also UNCCD Reports clearinghouse mechanism

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
(i) National Communications and In-depth Reviews
Tuvalu (1999; 5.37mb),

(ii) National Action Plans on Adaptation (NAPA) 
Tuvalu (2007; 2.2mb)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC,1992) is concerned with global warming and the consequent rise in sea levels that may result in the flooding of coastal areas, and submerging islands, which could adversely affect coastal communities. The treaty aims at reducing emissions of greenhouse gas in order to combat global warming. Although the treaty as originally framed set no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual nations and contained no enforcement provisions; it did include provisions for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol.

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